Urbanization as an all-round process is manifested through population concentration, existence of skyrocketing, modern and big buildings as well as the availability of a multitude of facilities by far surpass those found in countryside. With the development of education and culture, changing leisure habits coupled with science and technology, city residents put forward new architectural and functional requirements to the living setting and urban infrastructure. This calls for the creation of new types and forms of residential erections, the structure of the city and transport networks.
In addition, the need to develop high-rise building construction is justified by the growing demand for residential, public and administrative offices and the lack of free space. On the other hand, lack of free space will lead to environmental pollution which is unsafe for societal health.
Now a day, witnessing large buildings, which are covered with glass in cities, are common. This in turn indicates that the economic progress of the country is well boosting putting environmental issues aside. Such designs are driven by imitation not with scrupulous way of cultural and social consideration, which limits important factors diversity. Imitation in architecture duplication also goes against the United Nation’s Agenda 2030, which seeks to make cities inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable as well as suitable for living and working. To achieve this vision in developing African countries, it may be necessary to revisit current approaches to the built environment so as not to repeat the same environmental mishap.
In simple terms, the construction of buildings has to take the local realities, the system that helps cultural identities sustain and the way of living of citizenry into consideration.
There are of course skyrocketing buildings here and there in the capital. The possession of the Commercial Bank of Ethiopia the largest building in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia’s capital is a case in point in this regard.
Association of Ethiopian Architects (AEA) Deputy Director Architect Tesfamariam Teshome said that architect is multidisciplinary discipline. It is all about collecting other knowledge and combining them with local realities in creating conducive environment for the respective areas.
Architectures share all disciplines culture, history, politics, science and technology, and also understanding them. Starting from the past the field is improving and modernizing from time to time. Now a day, with the support of technology smart and comfortable buildings are constructing.
Apart from individual buildings public buildings like offices, educational centers, market centers and others have to be built in a comfortable manner. Air flow across the building is important especially in a place where the large population gathering occures like recreational areas. Buildings without proper place for the movement of air is difficult both living and for social safety.
The rapid growth of the economy of the leading countries is contributing to the development of big cities. In connection with intensive internal and external migration of people to big cities, the population density is increasing from time to time. As a result, the number of modern buildings and high-rise buildings is increasing, and the engineering and transport infrastructure is developing at an incredible pace.
A modern metropolitan area is a living environment that combines a natural environment, an intensive transport environment, a recreation environment and a high density residential scenario.
The growth of modern high-rise buildings significantly affects the existing climatic conditions of the terrain and the environmental balance of the living environment. At the same time, the density of urban development, the infrastructure and transport networks play an important role in changing the living environment. Urban development as a combination of complex architectural forms significantly affects the cleanness of the terrain.
In this regard, both industrial areas and high-density residential areas are environmentally unfavorable. Thus, high-rise buildings and structures do, being an integral part of a modern city, significantly aggravate the environmental conditions of urban areas.
High-density residential areas of the city, being the most important part of any metropolitan area, where comfortable living conditions are created for their residents, are exposed to the constant impact of pollution sources. The main sources of air pollution in residential areas include industrial enterprises, heating boiler houses and road transport.
A modern city with high-rise buildings is a fairly effective system of heating the vertical surfaces of buildings and horizontal surfaces of roofs, sidewalks and roads with solar heat. At the same time, the high-density construction of certain areas hinders natural aeration and causes the formation of urban heat islands that affect the pollution of the air basin. The lack of connection with local context often has significant energy, environmental and social implications.
The culture of using foreign architectural styles, regardless of the consequences, comes from the pressures of globalization and the colonial past of some African countries. But currently what is being witnessed is that most of the buildings constructed and under construction are not this match related to the local realities.
Especially in Addis Ababa at the moment the number of building sites is overgrowing. The building site needs to consider local realities than importing foreign architectural design. Apart from this, each building site has to have its own air parking, place of gardens, parking and others. In so doing, the city feels comfortable environment with clean air. Massive construction projects are underway in the city and those all construction sites need to reflect the local environment and take indigenous art than importing foreign design.